邮发代码:82-418   刊号:ISSN1671-4350   定价:16.00

[点击科学]2021年10月点击科学

陶 陶 编译

2021-10/总第307期

阅读数4

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2021-08-13

封面图展示的是一幅真人大小的油画,再现了1只成年雄性猛犸象穿越阿拉斯加北极的山口。人们对这些灭绝巨兽的迁移模式知之甚少。1根17 100年前的猛犸象象牙的同位素记录显示,这种动物在其一生中覆盖了极其广泛的地理范围。然而,随着冰河时代的结束,北极环境开始发生变化,维持这种流动性将变得越来越困难。


Reproduction of a life-size oil painting of an adult male woolly mammoth navigating a mountain pass in Arctic Alaska. Little is known about the movement patterns of these extinct giants. Isotopic records from a 17 100-year-old mammoth tusk reveal that the animal covered an extensive geographic range during its lifetime. However, as the ice age ended and the Arctic environment began to change, maintaining this level of mobility would have been increasingly difficult.


6557.jpg

2021-08-20

新的深度学习软件可以在几分钟时间内预测蛋白质结构,同时考量一、二、三维信息(分别是序列、距离和坐标),可以允许网络综合推理蛋白质的氨基酸序列及其折叠结构之间的关系。该软件还可用于根据相互作用伙伴的序列构建复杂的生物装配模型,所需时间仅为之前的几分之一。


New deep learning software can predict protein structures in minutes by simultaneously considering one-, two-, and three-dimensional information (sequence, distance, and coordinates, respectively), allowing the network to collectively reason about the relationship between a protein's amino acid sequence and its folded structure. The software can also be used to build models of complex biological assemblies from the sequences of interacting partners in a fraction of the time previously required.


6558.jpg

2021-08-27

封面图展示的是一种人工智能算法从大量错误的形状中选择了1个RNA分子的三维形状。对RNA折叠结构的计算预测尤为重要,同时也非常困难,因为已知的结构太少了。尽管缺乏相关数据,但机器学习的成功已经为理解与设计各种分子打开了大门,包括药物在内。


An artificial intelligence algorithm selects an RNA molecule's three-dimensional shape out of a sea of incorrect shapes. Computational prediction of the structures into which RNAs fold is particularly important - and particularly difficult - because so few structures are known. The success of machine learning despite this lack of data opens doors to understanding and designing diverse molecules, including medicines.


6559.jpg

2021-09-03

封面图展示的是2021年2月18日,在美国得克萨斯州达拉斯市,厚厚的积雪覆盖了地面。2021年2月的寒潮是美国损失最惨重的天气灾害之一,特别是对得克萨斯州来说,这是由于能源管理决策与异常恶劣的冬季天气共同导致的。新的研究通过将机器学习对观测结果的分析与数值模型相结合,证明北极气候的变化改变了极地涡旋的运动,增加了此类极端事件发生的可能性。


Snow blankets the ground in Dallas, Texas, on 18 February 2021. The cold wave of February 2021 was one of the costliest weather disasters in the United States, especially for Texas, owing to the intersection of energy regulation decisions and exceptionally severe winter weather. New research combines machine learning analysis of observations with numerical modeling to demonstrate that Arctic climate change has modified polar vortex behavior to increase the likelihood of such extreme events.


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