邮发代码:82-418   刊号:ISSN1671-4350   定价:16.00

[点击科学]2021年12月点击科学

陶 陶 编译

2021-12/总第309期

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2021-10-08

封面图展示的是由艺术家绘制的电池电解质使用胺基螯合剂促进镁离子(图中黄色部分)在高压氧化锰阴极的嵌入和脱嵌。螯合剂还促进了高可逆的金属电镀与镁离子阳极的剥离。溶剂化鞘层重组和电极-电解质界面修正使镁离子电池在电极水平上的能量密度达到412瓦时/千克。

Artist's rendering of battery electrolytes using amine-based chelants to promote intercalation and deintercalation of magnesium (Mg) ions (yellow) in high-voltage manganese oxide cathodes. The chelants also facilitate highly reversible metal plating and stripping at the Mg anode. Solvation sheath reorganization and electrode-electrolyte interface modification led to an energy density in the Mg ion batteries of 412 watt-hours per kilogram at electrode level.


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2021-10-15

美国的大规模监禁有着深刻的结构性根源,与种族、奴隶制、劳动力及金钱等息息相关。用插画家的话说:“这幅插图揭示了监狱系统在结构上的作用,以及它在这个国家的结构中是多么的根深蒂固。”

Mass incarceration in the United States has deep structural roots, with ties to race, slavery, labor, and money. In the words of the illustrator, “This illustration shines a light on the structural role of the prison system and how deeply embedded it is in the fabric of this country.”



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2021-10-22

与聚合物和金属不同,木材不易塑形。为了填补这一加工技术的空缺,研究人员开发了一种细胞壁工程的方式,通过部分使用化学去木质素,以及随后的物理水击处理,就可以将扁平的木片塑造成多种用途的三维结构(如蜂窝结构),并大大提高其机械强度。

Unlike polymers and metals, wood cannot be easily shaped. To close this processing gap, researchers have developed a method of cell wall engineering in which partial chemical delignification and a subsequent physical water-shock process make it possible to mold flat sheets of wood into versatile 3D structures (e.g., honeycombs) with substantially improved mechanical strength.


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2021-10-29

睡眠是非常重要的生理过程。我们的身体可能是静止的,基本上保持不动,但我们的大脑是高度活跃的。在一整天的时间里,人体所积累的代谢物和其他毒素都会被清除掉,近期记忆也会被巩固。因此,科学家已经开始详细研究睡眠如何帮助人体恢复,以及其他有益功能。

Sleep is an essential physiological process. Our bodies may be quiet and largely immobile, but our brains are highly active. Metabolites and other toxins that have accumulated over the course of the day get cleared away. Recent memories become consolidated. Scientists have thus begun to investigate the restorative and beneficial functions of sleep in great detail.

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